Employment seekers crowd booths at a job fair in Chongqing municipality, China, November 2010.
Despite a sharp rebound in economic growth for many countries, global unemployment in 2011 is likely to continue at the record highs of the past three years, highlighting the need for long-term policies that prioritise quality job creation, according to the United Nations labour agency, the UN News Service reported.
Moreover, a narrow focus in developed economies on reducing fiscal deficits without addressing the challenge of job creation will further weaken employment prospects in 2011, the UN International Labour Organisation (ILO) said in a new report.
"In spite of a highly differentiated recovery in labour markets across the world, the tremendous human costs of the recession are still with us," ILO Director-General Juan Somavia said of official global unemployment, which was 205 million in 2010, essentially unchanged from 2009, that is 27.6 million more than on the eve of the global economic crisis in 2007.
The ILO projects a global unemployment rate of 6.1 per cent, equivalent to 203.3 million unemployed, through 2011, as the labour market registers a highly differentiated recovery with persistently high levels of unemployment and growing discouragement in developed countries, and employment growth but continued high levels of vulnerable employment and working poverty in developing regions.
These trends stand in stark contrast to the recovery seen in several key macro-economic indicators.
Global gross domestic product (GDP), private consumption, investment, and international trade and equity markets all recovered in 2010, surpassing pre-crisis levels.
"There is one common challenge: we need to rethink our standard macro-economic policy mixes and make quality job creation and decent work a central target of macro-economic policies, alongside high growth, low inflation and balanced public budgets," Somavia said.
"We must not forget that for people the quality of work defines the quality of a society."
Worldwide, 78 million young people were unemployed in 2010, well above the pre-crisis level of 73.5 million in 2007, but down from 80 million in 2009. Unemployment in the 15-24 age group was 12.6 per cent in 2010, 2.6 times the adult rate of unemployment.
"Youth employment is a world priority," Somavia said.
"The weak recovery in decent work reinforces a persistent inability of the world economy to secure a future for all youth. This undermines families, social cohesion and the credibility of policies" he said.
About 55 per cent of the rise in global unemployment between 2007 and 2010 occurred in what ILO terms the Developed Economies and European Union (EU) region, which only accounts for 15 per cent of the world’s labour force.
In several developing countries, such as Brazil, Kazakhstan, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Uruguay, unemployment actually has fallen below pre-crisis levels.
On a regional level, joblessness in South-East Asia and the Pacific did not increase but the number of workers in vulnerable employment rose by 5.4 million since 2007 to 173.7 million in 2009.
South Asia had the highest vulnerable job rate at 78.5 per cent of all jobs in 2009.
In East Asia, youth unemployment remains a major challenge at 8.3 per cent, 2.5 times the adult rate.
In Latin America and the Caribbean, rapid recovery has led to strong job growth but vulnerable jobs have increased.
In sub-Saharan Africa, more than three quarters of workers are in vulnerable jobs and four out of five are living with their families on less than $2 a person per day.
In North Africa, an alarming 23.6 per cent of economically active young people were unemployed in 2010.
In Central and South-Eastern Europe and the former Soviet States, unemployment declined to 9.6 per cent after peaking in 2009 at 10.4 per cent, the highest regional rate in the world.
Globally, about 1.53 billion workers were in vulnerable employment in 2009, a vulnerable job rate of 50.1 per cent and broadly unchanged since 2008, in sharp contrast to the steady and significant average decline in the years preceding the crisis. About 630 million workers – 20.7 per cent of all workers – lived with their families at the extreme $1.25-a-day level in 2009 – 40 million more working poor and 1.6 percentage points higher than projected on pre-crisis trends.
Moreover, increasing food prices globally represent a growing threat, potentially leading to job losses in non-agricultural sectors if inflation is passed on to other areas of the economy.
Underlining the need for steps to boost job creation and jump-start a sustainable jobs recovery, the report emphasises that an improved labour market will support a broader macro-economic recovery.
"Rebalancing the global economy so that growth is both strong and sustainable requires more than adjustments to currencies and financial regimes," Somavia said.
"Promoting entrepreneurship, investments in the real economy, inclusive labour markets and income-led growth are the means to get growth moving while measures to expand social protection and improve the quality of jobs will ensure more sustainable outcomes. This is a win-win situation for both enterprises and workers while enhancing the credibility of public policies."
A report by the UN Conference on Trade and Development forecasts moderate economic growth in 2011 and 2012 of between three and 3.5 per cent. It says this is too low to recover from job losses triggered by the economic crisis.
While a far cry from the double-digit levels before the global financial crisis started, inflation is still a concern, given that it is combined with frozen and even declining incomes in much of the private sector.
The narrow focus of many euro zone countries on fiscal austerity is deepening the jobs crisis and could even lead to another recession in Europe, said the Director of the ILO Institute for International Labour Studies and lead author of the report, Raymond Torres.
Yassen Lyubenov is the new head of marketing at Bulgarian beer brewer Kamenitza. Lyubenov has 12 years of experience in marketing in the fast-moving consumer goods sector and has started his career as assistant brand manager at Kraft Foods Bulgaria. He later became brand manager at Wrigley Bulgaria, with responsibilities for Bulgaria and Macedonia. Prior to joining Kamenitza, he was senior marketing manager at Wrigley Russia, where he was in charge of brand expansion into Ukraine, Belarus, Central Asia and the Caucasus.
Lyubenov has a bachelor's degree in international business administration from the University of Lincoln, UK.
Kamelia Lozanova has been appointed the executive director of the Employment Agency, a position she has held ad interim since September 2011, following the resignation of her predecessor Rossitsa Stelianova. Prior to that, Lozanova was the agency's deputy executive director in charge of international projects and European programmes. She has been with the agency for more than 20 years.
Lozanova has a degree in Slavonic philology from the St Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia.
Gloria Dimitrova has been appointed executive director and member of the managing board at Uniqa Life Insurance Bulgaria. Dimitrova began her career in 1998 at the insurance supervision directorate, but moved to the private sector and worked for professional services and insurance brokerage firm Marsh&McLennan and US insurer AIG, both in Bulgaria and the Middle East. She joined Uniqa as regional director for Sofia in 2010.
Dimitrova has a degree in economics from the University for National and World Economy in Sofia and a master's degree in insurance from the Business Academy in Svishtov.
Bedros Kalfayan, general manager of skin care and cosmetics company Beiersdorf Bulgaria, will oversee the parent's company units in Romania and Moldova starting April 1. Following company restructuring, Beiersdorf's subsidiaries in the three countries were merged and are now one unit, part of Beiersdorf Central and Eastern Europe. Kalfayan joined Beiersdorf in 2007 as sales manager and was promoted to general manager in 2008. Prior to that, he worked for Axxon Bulgaria, Ferrero and Rubella.
Kalfayan has a master's degree in industrial management from the Technical University in Sofia.
Sasha Bezuhanova has been appointed Hewlett-Packard public sector director for emerging markets, where she will oversee HP public sector activities in 63 countries, including Bulgaria. Bezuhanova will also be in charge of HP's relations with the European Union. Bezuhanova has been HP's public sector director for Central and Eastern Europe since 2008; before that she was general manager of HP Bulgaria since 1998.
Bezuhanova has a master's degree in electronics from the Technical University in Sofia and has completed a managment programme at INSEAD.
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